Thursday, June 4, 2009

A流感(H1N1)

(摘自电邮)
什么是猪流感?What is Swine Influenza?   
猪流感(Swine Influenza, swine flu)是猪的一种呼吸道疾病,它的病原是一种能造成周期性爆发的A型流感病毒。猪流感病毒的致病率很高,但猪的死亡率低。猪流感病毒在全年都有可能传播,但大部分会在深秋和冬季月份爆发,这一点与人流感类似。典型的猪流感病毒(A型H1N1病毒)于1930年第一次从猪身上分离出来. Swine Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza virus that regularly causes outbreaks of influenza in pigs. Swine flu viruses cause high levels of illness and low death rates in pigs. Swine influenza viruses may circulate among swine throughout the year, but most outbreaks occur during the late fall and winter months similar to outbreaks in humans. The classical swine flu virus (an influenza type A H1N1 virus) was first isolated from a pig in 1930.

现在有多少种猪流感病毒?How many swine flu viruses are there?
就像所有的流感病毒一样,猪流感病毒也在不停地变化当中。禽流感,人流感以及猪流感病毒都会对猪造成感染;当不同种来源的流感病毒同时感染时,病毒之间就会重新“洗牌”(交换基因),从而产生一种新的“禽人猪”混合病毒。随着时间的推移,也出现了猪流感病毒的多种变种:现在人们从猪身上分离出了4种主要的A型流感病毒亚型: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, H3N1。但最近从猪分离出来的流感病毒大部分都是H1N1型病毒。 Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged. At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.  

人类会感染猪流感吗?Can humans catch swine flu?
一般来说猪流感并不会感染人类,但人们已经发现了少数人类感染猪流感的病例。这些病例大部分出现在与猪有直接接触的人群中(例如,市场上与猪接触的儿童,以及养猪业的工人)。另外也有一些病例是猪流感从一个人传染到另一个人的情况,例如1988年在威斯康星爆发的猪流感造成了多人感染。尽管猪流感没有在社区中传播开来,但抗体实验证实病毒从病人传播到了与其有近距离接触的医护人员身上。  
Swine flu viruses do not normally infect humans. However, sporadic human infections with swine flu have occurred. Most commonly, these cases occur in persons with direct exposure to pigs (e.g. children near pigs at a fair or workers in the swine industry). In addition, there have been documented cases of one person spreading swine flu to others. For example, an outbreak of apparent swine flu infection in pigs in Wisconsin in 1988 resulted in multiple human infections, and, although no community outbreak resulted, there was antibody evidence of virus transmission from the patient to health care workers who had close contact with the patient.  

人类感染猪流感的症状是什么?What are the symptoms of swine flu in humans?  
人类感染猪流感的症状预计会与人类感染季节性流感的症状类似,包括发烧,瞌睡,厌食以及咳嗽。一些感染猪流感的病人出现了流鼻涕,咽喉痛,恶心,呕吐以及腹泻的症状。  
The symptoms of swine flu in people are expected to be similar to the symptoms of regular human seasonal influenza and include fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing. Some people with swine flu also have reported runny nose, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.  

吃猪肉会感染猪流感吗?Can people catch swine flu from eating pork?
不会,猪流感病毒不会通过食物传播。吃猪肉或者猪肉制品不会使人感染猪流感,因此食用妥善处理过或者烹调过的猪肉及猪肉制品是安全的。与其他细菌或者病毒一样,将猪肉加热至内温160°F(71.1 °C)就会杀死猪流感病毒。  
No. Swine influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. You can not get swine influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the swine flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.  

猪流感是如何传播的?How does swine flu spread?
流感病毒能够直接从猪传染到人,或者从人传染到猪。人被猪感染最常见的情形是人与受感染的猪有近距离接触,例如在猪圈里,或者在市场上展出的猪。人与人的猪流感传播也是可能的,它的传播方式被认为与季节性流感传播的方式一样,即主要通过病人的咳嗽,打喷嚏的方式在人群之间传播。在接触含有病毒的物体之后再摸嘴巴或者摸鼻子也有可能感染病毒。  
Influenza viruses can be directly transmitted from pigs to people and from people to pigs. Human infection with flu viruses from pigs are most likely to occur when people are in close proximity to infected pigs, such as in pig barns and livestock exhibits housing pigs at fairs. Human-to-human transmission of swine flu can also occur. This is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu occurs in people, which is mainly person-to-person transmission through coughing or sneezing of people infected with the influenza virus. People may become infected by touching something with flu viruses on it and then touching their mouth or nose.  

如何诊断人感染了猪流感?How can human infections with swine influenza be diagnosed?
如果需要诊断A型猪流感,一般需要收集病人最开始4-5天发病期的呼吸道标本,这段时间是病人最有可能传播病毒的时期。但对某些人(特别是儿童)可能在最开始的10天时间(或者更长)就开始传播病毒。如果需要确认A型猪流感病毒,需要将标本送至CDC进行实验室检验。  
To diagnose swine influenza A infection, a respiratory specimen would generally need to be collected within the first 4 to 5 days of illness (when an infected person is most likely to be shedding virus). However, some persons, especially children, may shed virus for 10 days or longer. Identification as a swine flu influenza A virus requires sending the specimen to CDC for laboratory testing.  

感染了猪流感的病人有何治疗措施?What medications are available to treat swine flu infections in humans?  
现在有4种抗病毒药品被允许在美国治疗流感:金刚烷胺(amantadine),金刚乙胺(rimantadine),奥塞米韦(oseltamivir)和扎那米韦(zanamivir)。这四种药品对大部分猪流感病毒都有效,但最近从人类分离出来的猪流感病毒对金刚烷胺和金刚乙胺有抗药性。因此,CDC建议使用奥塞米韦和扎那米韦来对猪流感病毒进行治疗和/或预防。  
There are four different antiviral drugs that are licensed for use in the US for the treatment of influenza: amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir and zanamivir. While most swine influenza viruses have been susceptible to all four drugs, the most recent swine influenza viruses isolated from humans are resistant to amantadine and rimantadine. At this time, CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir or zanamivir for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses.

如何预防猪流感如何預防H1N1新型流感,疾管局說,一般民眾勤洗手是最重要的預防手段、維持良好個人衛生、減少出入公共場所或戴口罩、並與遭感染者保持1公尺以上安全距離。具有呼吸道症狀民眾應停止上班上課,在家休息、戴口罩、咳嗽時用衛生紙遮口鼻並丟入垃圾桶、手部接觸到呼吸道分泌物之後要洗手、儘可能與別人保持1公尺以上距離。洗手也有撇步。要用肥皂和溫水洗滌15到20秒;沒有水時,可用含酒精成分的潔手液或凝膠清潔劑,使用凝膠時要摩擦雙手,直到凝膠變乾。

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